Hexavalent chromium (chromium(VI), Cr(VI), chromium 6)
refers to chemical compounds that contain the element chromium in the +6 oxidation state (thus hexavalent).1)Hexavalent Chromium: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hexavalent_chromium
Chromium-6, the cancer-causing chemical best known for its role in the Erin Brockovich story, has been found at higher-than-recommended levels in the tap water supplying two-thirds of all Americans, according to a report from the Environmental Working Group.
“The difficulty with chromium-6 is how to set a standard to protect human health during windows of development,” Andrews said.
Even in small amounts, chromium-6 can cause skin burns, pneumonia, complications during childbirth and stomach cancer. 2)What is chromium-6 and how did it infiltrate America’s drinking water? : http://www.pbs.org/newshour/rundown/chromium-6-wash-many-drinking-supplies/
In Chicago's first ever testing for the toxic metal contaminant, results show that the city's local drinking water contains levels of hexavalent chromium more than 11 times higher than the health standard set in California in July 2011. The results of the test showed that the water which is sent to over 7 million residents had average levels of 0.23 ppb of the toxic metal. California's Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment designated the nation's new "public health goal" limit as 0.02 ppb. Echoing their counterparts in other cities where the metal has been detected, Chicago officials stress that local tap water is safe and suggest that if a national limit is adopted, it likely would be less stringent than California's goal. The Illinois Environmental Protection Agency (Illinois EPA) has developed a chromium(VI) strategic plan which outlines tasks in order to reduce the levels of chromium(VI) in Illinois' drinking water. One of which is to work with the U.S. EPA to provide significant technical assistance to the City of Chicago to ensure they quickly develop an effective chromium(VI) specific monitoring program that makes use of the U.S. EPA-approved methods.3)Hexavalent Chromium: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hexavalent_chromium
Chicago's Chromium-6 Reports:
The Chicago Department of Water Management has begun quarterly monitoring for chromium-6. Federal regulators and the drinking water industry are presently researching chromium-6, also referred to as hexavalent chromium, in an attempt to discover at what levels it might pose a health risk in drinking water. Chromium-6 is a naturally occurring contaminant and an industrial chemical that has been linked to cancer.
Currently, there are no regulations or requirements to test for chromium-6 in drinking water. The EPA did issue a guidance statement on January 11, 2011. That statement recommended surface water systems like Chicago sample the source water, plant treated water, and water in the distribution system on a quarterly basis.
The Chicago Department of Water Management is voluntarily following the EPA’s recommendations. The EPA is developing a risk assessment for chromium-6 via ingestion; results should be available later this year. The risk assessment will form the basis of any regulations that may be developed for this element. The Chicago Department of Water Management is prepared to respond, immediately to any new regulations, for chromium-6, to protect public health and meet federal and state water quality standards.4)Chicago's Chromium-6 Reports: https://www.cityofchicago.org/city/en/depts/water/supp_info/water_quality_resultsandreports/chromium-6.html
PDF on facts about chromium-6
"Facts About Chromium" (PDF). 5)"Facts About Chromium" (PDF). United States Environmental Protection Agency. April 13, 2013. Archived from the original on April 13, 2013. Retrieved July 13, 2016. from wikipedia.org (click to download) from the United States Environmental Protection Agency.
References [ + ]
|1, 3.||↑||Hexavalent Chromium: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hexavalent_chromium|
|2.||↑||What is chromium-6 and how did it infiltrate America’s drinking water? : http://www.pbs.org/newshour/rundown/chromium-6-wash-many-drinking-supplies/|
|4.||↑||Chicago's Chromium-6 Reports: https://www.cityofchicago.org/city/en/depts/water/supp_info/water_quality_resultsandreports/chromium-6.html|
|5.||↑||"Facts About Chromium" (PDF). United States Environmental Protection Agency. April 13, 2013. Archived from the original on April 13, 2013. Retrieved July 13, 2016. from wikipedia.org|
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Image from the PBS Article "How to Get Chromium-6 Out of Your Water".1)http://www.pbs.org/newshour/rundown/getting-the-chromium-out-of-your-water/
References [ + ]